If you’re new to the field of software development and wondering what program to learn? I’ve got you covered. The hardest decision for a software developer is to decide which programming language he or she must begin with. There are a million programming languages out there in the market and each of them have their own features that have both complexities and simplicities.

Only when you begin your journey as a software developer you understand the pros and cons of every language and choose the one that best suits you. 

In this article, we enlist the top ten programming languages that every software developer must know for 2021. We will examine the programming languages from the most demanding languages to the commonly used ones.  

Before getting into the programming languages, let us understand the different types of programming languages they are:

-Procedural Programming Languages: It is derived from a structured programming language that consists of a series of well-structured procedures that help in composing a program. Some of them are Adobe Dreamweaver, Eclipse, BASIC, C, Java, and many more.  

-Functional Programming Languages: It is a declarative programming language that is constructed by applying and composing functions. The foundation of this programming language is lambda calculus that uses conditional expressions and recursions. Some of the examples are SML, Scala, Haskell, and many more. 

Object-oriented programming language: It is a type of programming language based on objects. It contains data in the form of fields and the code in the form of procedures. Some of the examples are Java, C++, Python,Javascript and many more. 

Scripting Programming Languages: It is a type of language that does not require a compilation step and is rather interpreted. This language is majorly used in web applications. Some of the popular scripting languages are: 

-Server Side Scripting Languages: Javascript, PHP, and PERL. 

-Client- Side Scripting Languages:Javascript,AJAX,and Jquery. 

-System Administration: Shell, PERL, Python. 

-Linux Interface: BASH

-Web Development: Ruby 

-Logic Programming:  It is a type of programming language that is largely based on formal logic. It employs restrictions on how it has to do something. The major programming languages are PROLOG, ASAP, and Datalog. 

Here’s the list of the top ten programming languages


Hands down, Python definitely tops the list. It is outright one of the best programming languages in the market. It is usually preferred by a beginner to learn first as it is user-friendly and fast to deploy.  Python is a widely used tool to develop scalable web applications. Today’s Youtube, Instagram, Pinterest, Survey Monkey, and many such applications are based out of Python. Python is acclaimed as a great tool for amateurs because it has a vast source of library support and a large developer community. 

If you’re looking for a better job, Python is definitely a lifesaver. A majority of the startups and new establishments are using Python as their primary backend stack and this provides a huge opportunity for Python developers. 

Python is definitely a very simple program! If you want to get into Data Science, AI you must learn Python. However, it is also extensively used in web development. 

Difficulty Level: Beginner 


-Extremely easy to learn and use

-Extensive library support

-It focuses on code readability

-It holds the ability to scale even the most complex applications

-It helps in developing prototypes and testing ideas faster

–  Compatible for multiple platforms and systems. 


-It is unsuitable for mobile computing 

-Since it is an interpreted programming language 

-Due to the presence of Global Interpreter Lock (GIL) the threading isn’t good. 

-The database access layer is immature. 

  • JAVA

 Java is another popular choice in large organizations and has remained in the market for decades. It is widely used for building enterprise-level web applications. It is an extremely stable program and because of that many large-scale organizations have adopted it. Java is a must-learn if you’re looking to get placed in companies dealing with large scale operations.  Java is also extensively used in the development of applications for Android. Everyone that has a business today needs an android application to help reach out to the million people out there.  This itself gives a large number of opportunities for Java developers. Just like a cherry on top of a cake, Google has created an excellent Java-based Android development framework – Android Studio. 

Difficulty level: Intermediate 


-It supports multithreading. 

-It has an abundant source of open libraries. 

-Java automatically allocates memory and collects garbage. 

-It has the stack allocation system. 

-It is ideal for distributed computing. 

-Follows the OOP paradigm


-It is extremely expensive to manage memory. 

-The absence of templates limits the creation of high-quality data structures. 

-Slower than other traditional programs like C and C++ 

  • C/C++ 

It is like the most basic but important programming language. Almost all low-level systems are written in C/C++. If you’re looking to be a system-level programmer, C/C++ is the language you should learn. It is used by a large number of competitive programmers since it is extremely fast and stable. 

C++ also provides something called STL – Standard Template Library which is a pool of ready-to-use libraries for various data structures, arithmetic operations, and algorithms. 

Difficulty level: Intermediate 


  • It provides a large number of compilers and libraries to work with. 
  •  It is easy to access any blocked or hidden objects by other programming languages. 
  • Faster execution of programs when compared to the rest. 
  • It lays down the foundation for understanding more complex programming languages. 
  •  It offers a great degree of portability 
  • Since it is a procedure-oriented language it makes debugging, testing, and maintaining the programs easier. 
  • Programs are more efficient and easy to understand. 
  • Rich function library
  • Wide variety of application domains, such as games, GUI applications, and real-time mathematical simulations. 


  • Complex syntax 
  • Incapable of solving modern, real-world programming challenges
  • Less efficient as it is object-oriented when compared to other OOP-based programming languages. 
  • Need to manually create the high-level constructs. 
  • No garbage collection or dynamic memory allocation. 
  • Smaller standard library  

It is the most forward programming language. It is widely used to design interactive frontend applications. These days, many organizations, particularly startups, are using NodeJS which runs on a JavaScript-based run-time environment. It lets developers use JavaScript for server-side scripting, running scripts server-side to produce dynamic web page content before the page is sent to the user’s web browser. If you are looking for that cool tech job, you should seriously consider learning JavaScript.

Difficulty level: Beginner 


  •  It runs immediately within the web browser as there is no compilation requirement
  • Gives a richer interface to a website
  • Highly versatile
  • It is the programming language of the web
  • Regular updates via the ECMA specification
  • Simplistic implementation
  • Plenty of resources and a mammoth community support
  • Used for building a diverse range of applications
  • Works exceptionally well with other programming languages


  • Absence of copy or equivalent method
  • Allows only single ownership. 
  • JavaScript is subject to the fear of being exploited for malicious intent. 

Go, also known as Golang, is a programming language built by Google. It provides excellent support for multithreading. It is used by those companies that depend on distributed systems. Go is widely used in startups in Silicon Valley however, it is yet to be adopted by Indian companies/startups. 

If you wish to join a Valley-based startup specializing in core systems should master Golang.

Difficulty level: Intermediate


  • Backed by Google
  • Being a statically-typed language makes it more secure
  • Cleaner syntax makes it easier to learn
  • Ideal for building Single-page Applications (SPAs)
  • Smart documentation
  • Very fast as it is compiled to machine code


  • Implicit interfaces
  • Lacks versatility
  • No GUI library
  • Underprivileged library support 

5. R

It is one of the most commonly used programming languages for Data Analysis and Machine Learning. R provides an excellent framework and has built-in libraries to develop powerful Machine Learning algorithms. It is also used for general statistical computing. R has been well adopted by enterprises. 

Difficulty level: Intermediate 


  • Ability to run seamlessly on various kinds of operations systems
  • Comprehensive statistical analysis language
  • Highly extensible
  • Powerful package ecosystem


  • Lacks security features
  • No strict programming guidelines
  • Very poor memory management. 


Swift is the programming language that is used to develop iOS applications. With the increasing popularity of Iphone, IOS and other Ios Devices.Therefore, those who want to serve this community can learn Swift programming.

Difficulty level: Easy to moderate to learn. 3.5 out of 5.


  • Automatic memory management prevents memory leaks
  • Backed by Apple
  • Better scalability allows easily adding functionalities to the product and/or bringing in additional developers
  • Interoperable with Objective-C
  • It is possible to integrate Server-side Swift with any technology
  • Makes code sharing better and development process faster when used for both frontend and backend development
  • Very fast as compared to other popular programming languages. 


  • Limited community support and resources
  • Somewhat unstable due to being a relatively new arrival on the programming scene
  • No support for legacy projects. 

7. PHP 

 It is one among the most popular backend programming languages. Though PHP is facing a lot of competition from  JavaScript, the market still needs a large number of PHP developers. Those who wish to join a reasonably well old organization as a backend developer should aim to learn PHP programming.

Difficulty level: Beginner 


  • Abundance of powerful frameworks
  • Easy to get started for making web pages
  • First-class debugging with Xdebug
  • Gigantic community support and a huge ecosystem
  • Lots of automation tools for testing and deploying applications
  • No scarcity of good automation tools for deployment and testing
  • Supports object-oriented and functional programming paradigms. 


  • Developing websites completely in PHP is slower as compared to using other options
  • Lacks in terms of security
  • Poor error handling
  • Requires extensions to a greater extent

8. C#

It  is a general-purpose programming language developed by Microsoft. C# is widely used for backend programming, building games (using Unity), building Windows mobile phone apps and lots of other use cases.

Difficulty level: Intermediate


  • As pointer types aren’t permitted, much safer than C and C++
  • Ability to work with shared codebases
  • Automatic scalable and updateable
  • Component-oriented, object-oriented programming language
  • Follows a syntax similar to the C programming language
  • Fully integrated with the .NET library
  • Ideal for all types of Windows development
  • Rich sets of library functions and data types
  • Supports type safety
  • Quick compilation and execution times


  • Allows pointers in ‘unsafe’ blocks
  • Almost all variables are references and memory deallocation is implicit using a garbage collector
  • Offers less flexibility than C++
  • Requires decent effort and time to learn
  • Resolving errors requires serious expertise and knowledge

Matlab is a statistical analysis tool that is used in various industries for Data Analysis. MATLAB is used widely in the Computer Vision and Image processing industry as well.

Difficulty level: Intermediate


  • Eases developing scientific simulation thanks to a rich inbuilt library
  • Functionality can be extended greatly by adding toolboxes
  • High coding efficiency and productivity as it doesn’t require a compiler for execution
  • Ideal for developing scientific research applications
  • Matlab Coder allows converting code for using in other programming languages, such as C++, Java, and Python
  • Platform-independent


  • Not free to use, requires purchasing a license
  • Not much application beyond the scope of numerical computing
  • Dealing with errors generated during cross-compilation requires extensive knowledge and experience
  • Slower due to being an interpreted programming language

I hope you’ve already started contemplating which software you must start with, let us know in the comments below…..


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